Better Worlds, Brighter Futures

Ecology, Humanity, Idealism |

Murray Bookchin (1921-2006)

Revised May 2018

Welcome to the inaugural post of the Better Worlds, Brighter Futures blog! Here you will find news and analysis from a broad social ecological perspective. It is hoped that out of these explorations social ecology can begin to engage with “fellow traveler” philosophies, create dialog, build a movement, as well as articulate and begin to prefigure the post-scarcity society: the ecological, directly democratic, liberated human society.

While aiming for a wide relevance, particular consideration will be given to the social and ecological conditions of arid lands (deserts), with the idea being that solutions found in these extreme environments will have global relevance.

Before we begin the discussion of where to go, it is important to realize from where we came and how we got here. Therefore, it is fitting that Murray Bookchin be the subject of this inaugural post.

The legacy of Murray Bookchin contributes, among others, conceptions of the post­-scarcity society; a path for the transcendence of Marxism and anarchism; the insistence on the role of social factors in the ecological crisis; histories and analyses of past revolutionary movements; an advanced analysis of hierarchy and its role outside of economic exploitation; as well as an insightful analysis of capitalism from World War II to 2006. Such distinguished contributions give twenty-first century social ecology a bright future.

Bookchin himself became increasingly dismayed at the state of advanced capitalist society and the “radical” movements within it (see for instance, “The Twilight Comes Early”). Some of his last works are concerned with “Social Ecology in a Period of Reaction”— in disheartened recognition that global capitalism seemed to have stabilized and showed little sign of weakness. Murray Bookchin (whose lifespan, for historical context, overlapped the great anarchist-communist Peter Kropotkin by 25 days), passed away July 30, 2006 — a mere seventeen months before the start of the “Great Recession.”

(May 2018: Indeed, within five years of his passing, the US would see the election of Barack Obama, the start of the “Great Recession,” and later, Occupy Wall Street. These and subsequent developments, including an autonomous Kurdish region in Syria influenced partially by his thought, may have challenged Bookchin’s view, seemingly accurate from the 1990s to the mid-00s in the US, of an advanced, hegemonic capitalism not under much threat and no longer susceptible to extreme systemic crises. With the acceleration of technological disruption and displacement, and the ongoing restructuring and de-skilling of the working class, we would do well to take a critical look at Bookchin’s view here. We must take these and other developments into account when formulating our contemporary analysis of capitalism.)

Going forward, social ecology must further develop the analysis of capitalism as it stands at present and explore the possibilities and potentials that have emerged in the wake of economic instability. A twenty-first century social ecology needs to engage creatively and comradely with complimentary movements and philosophies (Inclusive Democracy, Communalism, Ecosocialism, Deep Ecology, Ecofeminism, etc.) while retaining its own distinctiveness. Lastly, it is the task of a twenty-first century social ecology to develop concrete praxes informed by social ecological analysis and ecoregional particularities.

Murray Bookchin Bibliography

The following is a chronological list of Murray Bookchin’s standalone works. This does not include the many essays published in periodicals or by other means not collected in book form. Titles are listed by date of first publication, title, publisher of latest version, edition, and date of last publication. The exception is From Urbanization to Cities, which has appeared under three different names, each collected under the title of first publication, The Rise of Urbanization and the Decline of Citizenship. Chapters/essays are listed immediately below the title and are listed by original publication date, title, and original publication (if applicable). Much of this information was taken from Janet Biehl’s “A Bibliography of Published Works by MURRAY BOOKCHIN in Chronological Order, Including Translations.

For other work of Murray Bookchin, see also: “Murray Bookchin’s Collected Works” (Anarchy Archives, Pitzer College), and “Author: Murray Bookchin” (Institute for Social Ecology).

1962. Our Synthetic Environment. Knopf. (As “Lewis Herber”).
Our Synthetic Environment. Harper Colophon Books. Revised. 1974.
1974. “Introduction to the Colophon Edition.”
One: “The Problem.”
Two: “Agriculture and Health.”
Three: “Urban Life and Health.”
Four: “The Problem of Chemicals in Food.”
Five: “Environment and Cancer.”
Six: “Radiation and Human Health.”
Seven: “Human Ecology.”
Eight: “Health and Society.”

1965. Crisis in Our Cities: Death, Disease, and the Urban Plague. Prentice-Hall. (As “Lewis Herber”).
One: “The Urban Pace.”
Two: “Dirty Skies.”
Three: “The Silent Disasters.”
Four: “Disease from the Air.”
Five: “Cool, Refreshing–and Filthy.”
Six: “Disease from the Streams.”
Seven: “Living on Nervous Energy.”
Eight: “The Crude Art of Cracking Up.”
Nine: “The Immobilized Urbanite.”
Ten: “The Road Ahead.”
Eleven: “In the Long Run.”

1971. Post-Scarcity Anarchism. Ramparts Books.
Post-Scarcity Anarchism. Black Rose Books. 1986.
Post-Scaricty Anarchism. AK Press. 2004.
1970. “Introduction to the First Edition.”
1985. “Introduction to the Second Edition.”
2004. “Introduction to the Third Edition.”
1968. “Post-Scarcity Anarchism.” Anarchos.
1965. “Ecology and Revolutionary Thought.” Comment.
1965. “Towards a Liberatory Technology.” Comment.
1968. “The Forms of Freedom.” Anarchos.
1969. “Listen, Marxist!” Anarchos (Pamphlet) for SDS convention.
1971. “Note on Affinity Groups.”
1970. “Discussion on ‘Listen, Marxist!’”
1968. “The May-June Events in France 1: France: A Movement for Life.” Rat.
1968. “The May-June Events in France 2: Excerpts from a Letter.”
1967. “Desire and Need.” Anarchos

1974. The Limits of the City. Harper Colophon.
The Limits of the City. Black Rose Books. Second Edition. 1986.
1973. “Preface to the First Edition.”
c1958. “Introduction to the First Edition.”
1986. “Introduction to the Second Edition.”
1958. “Land and City.” Contemporary Issues.
1958. “The Rise of the Bourgeois City.” Contemporary Issues.
1958, 1974. “The Limits of the Bourgeois City.”
1974. “Community and City Planning.”
1984. “Theses on Libertarian Municipalism.” Our Generation. (Second edition)

1977. The Spanish Anarchists: The Heroic Years 1868-1936. Harper Colophon.
The Spanish Anarchists: The Heroic Years 1868-1936. AK Press. 1993.
Prologue: “Fanelli’s Journey.”
One: “The ‘Idea’ and Spain.”
Two: “The Topography of Revolution.”
Three: “The Beginning.”
Four: “The Heroic Years.”
Five: “The Disinherited.”
Six: “Terrorists and ‘Saints’.”
Seven: “Anarchosyndicalism.”
Eight: “The CNT.”
Nine: “From Dictatorship to Republic.”
Ten: “The Road to Revolution.”
Eleven: “Concluding Remarks.”

1980. Toward an Ecological Society. Black Rose Books. Second Printing. 1986.
1979. “Introduction.”
1969. “The Power to Create, the Power to Destroy.” Roots. Revised 1979.
1974. “Toward an Ecological Society.” Roots.
1980. “An Open Letter to the Ecological Movement.” Comment.
1975. “Energy, ‘Ecotechnology’, and Ecology.” Liberation.
1976. “The Concept of Ecotechnologies and Ecocommunities.” Habitat International.
1979. “Self-Management and the New Technology.” Telos.
1973. “The Myth of City Planning.” Liberation.
1978. “Toward a Vision of the Urban Future.” The Rise of the Sunbelt Cities.
1979. “Marxism as Bourgeois Sociology.” Comment.
1978. “On Neo-Marxism, Bureaucracy, and the Body Politic.” Telos.
1971. “Spontaneity and Organisation.” Anarchos.
1979. “Conclusion: Utopianism and Futurism.”
1980. “Appendix: Andre Gorz Rides Again — Or Politics as Environmentalism.” Telos.

1982. Ecology of Freedom: The Emergence and Dissolution of Hierarchy. Cheshire Books.
Ecology of Freedom: The Emergence and Dissolution of Hierarchy. Black Rose Books. 1991.
Ecology of Freedom: The Emergence and Dissolution of Hierarchy. AK Press. 2005.
2005. “Acknowledgements.”
2005. “Preface.”
1991. “Introduction to the 1991 Edition.”
1982. “Introduction.”
One: “The Concept of Social Ecology.”
Two: “The Outlook of Organic Society.”
Three: “The Emergence of Hierarchy.”
Four: “Epistemologies of Rule.”
Five: “The Legacy of Domination.”
Six: “Justice–Equal and Exact.”
Seven: “The Legacy of Freedom.”
Eight: “From Saints to Sellers.”
Nine: “Two Images of Technologies.”
Ten: “The Social Matrix of Technology.”
Eleven: “The Ambiguities of Freedom.”
Twelve: “An Ecological Society.”

1986. The Modern Crisis. New Society Publishers.
The Modern Crisis. Black Rose Books. Second Revised. 1987.
The Modern Crisis. AK Press. 2022 Forthcoming.
2022. “Introduction.” (by Andy Price in 2022 edition)
1985. “Rethinking Ethics, Nature, and Society.”
1984. “What is Social Ecology?” Schwarzer Faden.
1983. “Market Economy or Moral Economy?” A: Rivista Anarchica.
1983. “An Appeal for Social and Ecological Sanity.” Comment.
1983. “Workers and the Peace Movement.” Comment (pamphlet). (Second edition)

1987. Rise of Urbanization and the Decline of Citizenship. Sierra Club Books.
Urbanization Without Cities. Black Rose Books. Revised. 1992.
From Urbanization to Cities: Toward a New Politics of Citizenship. Cassell. Revised. 1995.
From Urbanization to Cities: The Politics of Democratic Municipalism. AK Press. Revised. 2021.
2021. “Preface.” (by Debbie Bookchin in 2021 edition)
2021. “Introduction to the 2021 Edition.” (by Sixtine van Outryve d’Ydewalle)
One: “Urbanization Against Cities.”
Two: “From Tribe to City.”
Three: “The Creation of Politics.”
Four: “The Ideal of Citizenship.”
Five: “Patterns of Civic Freedom.”
Six: “From Politics to Statecraft.”
Seven: “The Social Ecology of Urbanization.”
Eight: “The New Municipal Agenda.”
Appendix I: “The Meaning of Confederalism.” (removed from 2021 edition; can be found in The Next Revolution, 2015)
Appendix II: “Confederal Municipalism: An Overview.”

1989. Remaking Society. Black Rose Books.
Remaking Society: Pathways to a Green Future. South End Press. 1990.
“Why this Book was Written.”
“Society and Ecology.”
“Hierarchies, Classes, and States.”
“Turning Points in History.”
“Ideals of Freedom.”
“Defining the Revolutionary Project.”
“From Here to There.”

1990. The Philosophy of Social Ecology: Essays on Dialectical Naturalism. Black Rose Books.
The Philosophy of Social Ecology: Essays on Dialectical Naturalism. Black Rose Books. Second Edition, Revised. 1995.
The Philosophy of Social Ecology: Essays on Dialectical Naturalism. AK Press. Third Edition, Revised. 2022 Forthcoming.
1994. “Preface to the Second Edition.” (Second edition)
1990. “Introduction: A Philosophical Naturalism.”
1982. “Toward a Philosophy of Nature: The Bases for an Ecological Ethics.” Telos.
1986. “Freedom and Necessity in Nature: A Problem in Ecological Ethics.” Alternatives (Canada).
1987. “Thinking Ecologically: A Dialectical Approach.” Our Generation (Canada).
1994. “History, Civilization, and Progress: Outline for a Critique of Modern Relativism.” (Second edition)
2022. “Afterword” by Todd McGowan (Third edition)

1991. Defending the Earth: A Dialogue Between Murray Bookchin and Dave Foreman. South End Press.
Defending the Earth: A Debate Between Murray Bookchin and Dave Foreman. Black Rose Books. 1991.
Foreword: “Turning Debate into Dialogue.” David Levine of the Learning Alliance.
Introduction: “Whither the Radical Ecology Movement?” Steve Chase.
One: “Looking for Common Ground.” Murray Bookchin and Dave Foreman.
Two: “Ecology and the Left.” Paul McIsaac, Dave Foreman, and Murray Bookchin.
Three: “Radical Visions and Strategies.” Linda Davidoff, Dave Foreman, and Murray Bookchin.
Four: “Racism and the Future of the Movement.” Jim Haughton, Dave Foreman, and Murray Bookchin.
Five: “Second Thoughts of an Eco-Warrior.” Dave Foreman.
Six: “Where I Stand Now.” Murray Bookchin.

1994. To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936. AK Press.
1993. “Preface.”
1973. “An Overview of the Spanish Libertarian Movement.” Introduction to The Anarchist Collectives: Workers’ Self-Management in the Spanish Revolution 1936-1939 (Sam Dolgoff).
1986. “After Fifty Years: The Spanish Civil War.” New Politics, n.s., vol. 1, no. 1.

1994. Which Way for the Ecology Movement?. AK Press.
1993. “The Future of the Ecology Movement.”
1991. “Will Ecology Become ‘the Dismal Science’?” The Progressive.
1988-89. “The Population Myth.” Green Perspectives.
1983-84. “Sociobiology or Social Ecology.” Harbinger.

1995. Re-Enchanting Humanity: A Defense of the Human Spirit against Anti-Humanism, Misanthropy, Mysticism, and Primitivism. Cassell.
“A Caveat to the Reader.”
One: “Becoming Human.”
Two: “From ‘Selfish Genes’ to Mother ‘Gaia.’”
Three: “The New Malthusians.”
Four: “From Ecomysticism to Angelology.”
Five: “The Myth of the Primitive.”
Six: “Technophobia and its Tribulations.”
Seven: “Postmodernist Nihilism.”
Eight: “Science and Anti-Science: Anything Goes.”
Nine: “Re-Enchanting Humanity.”

1995. Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable Chasm. AK Press.
“A Short Note to the Reader.”
“Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism.”
“The Left that Was: A Personal Reflection.”

1996. The Third Revolution: Popular Movements in the Revolutionary Era. Vol. 1. Cassell.
Introduction: “Revolution from Below.”
One: “Late Medieval Uprisings.”
Two: “The German Peasant Wars.”
Three: “The Rise of Commerce: The Dutch Revolt and Tudor England.”
Four: “‘Country’ Versus ‘Court’.”
Five: “The Levellers and the New Model Army.”
Six: “The Putney Debates.”
Seven: “Regicide and Defeat.”
Eight: “Millenarian Sects and Cromwellian Governments.”
Nine: “‘A Kind of Revolution’.”
Ten: “Colonial Resistance.”
Eleven: “Revolutionary Ideology.”
Twelve: “The Committees of Safety and the Militias.”
Thirteen: “Internal Revolutions.”
Fourteen: “Shay’s Rebellion and the Constitution of 1789.”
Fifteen: “The Ancien Regime.”
Sixteen: “The Origins of Revolt.”
Seventeen: “The Journees of 1789-1790.”
Eighteen: “Journees toward the Republic.”
Nineteen: “The Sections of Paris.”
Twenty: “The Insurrection of June 2, 1793.”
Twenty-one: “Terror and Thermidor.”
“Bibliographic Essay.”

1998. The Third Revolution. Vol. 2. Cassell.
Twenty-two: “From Jacobinism to Socialism.”
Twenty-three: “From Restoration to Revolution.”
Twenty-four: “The Revolution of July 1830.”
Twenty-Five: “The Revolution of February 1848.”
Twenty-six: “The Incomplete Revolution.”
Twenty-seven: “‘Defeat of the Revolution!’”
Twenty-eight: “The Insurrection of June 1848.”
Twenty-nine: “Reaction and Revival.”
Thirty: “Prelude to the Paris Commune.”
Thirty-one: “The Paris Commune of 1871.”
Thirty-two: “The Rise of Proletarian Socialisms.”
Thirty-three: “The Social Democratic Interregnum.”
“Bibliographic Essay.”

1999. Anarchism, Marxism, and the Future of the Left: Interviews and Essays 1993-1998. AK Press.
1997. “A Marxist Revolutionary Youth.” Interview. Janet Biehl.
1993. “The Postwar Transition.” Interview. Doug Morris.
1993. “The 1960s.” Interview. Doug Morris.
1994. “Deep Ecology, Lifestyle Anarchism, Postmodernism.” Interview. Doug Morris.
1994. “Communalism: The Democratic Dimension of Anarchism.” Green Perspectives.
1998. “Whither Anarchism? A Reply to Recent Anarchist Critics.”
1998. “Reflections on Marx and Marxism.” Interview. Janet Biehl.
1994. “The Left: Past, Present, and Future.” Interview. Doug Morris.
1997. “The Unity of Ideals and Practice.” Schwarzer Faden.
1996. “Movement Building.” Interview. Doug Morris.

2004. The Third Revolution. Vol. 3. Continuum.
Thirty-six: “The Awakening of Russia.”
Thirty-seven: “Peasants and Populists, Workers and Marxists.”
Thirty-eight: “Social Democrats and Socialist Revolutionaries.”
Thirty-nine: “Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.”
Forty: “The Revolution of 1905: The Liberal Phase.”
Forty-one: “The Revolution of 1905: The Popular Phase.”
Forty-two: “The Crisis of Socialism.”
Forty-three: “The Revolution of February 1917.”
Forty-four: “The Soviets in Power.”
Forty-five: “Popular Committees and District Soviets.”
Forty-six: “Parties and Programs.”
Forty-seven: “Toward Red October.”
Forty-eight: “The October Revolution.”
Forty-nine: “The Emerging Dictatorship.”
Fifty: “The Russian Civil War.”
Fifty-one: “Bolsheviks Against the Proletariat.”
Fifty-two: “The Third Revolution.”
“Bibliographical Essay.”

2005. The Third Revolution. Vol. 4. Continuum.
Fifty-three: “Germany and the Antiwar Left.”
Fifty-four: “The German Uprisings of 1918.”
Fifty-five: “Councils or Republic?”
Fifty-six: “From ‘Spartacus Week’ to the Kapp Putsch.”
Fifty-seven: “The Danubian Revolutions.”
Fifty-eight: “Spain: Background to Revolution.”
Fifty-nine: “Syndicalist Organization and Anarchist Atentados.”
Sixty: “The Second Republic.”
Sixty-one: “The Popular Front and the Generals’ Rising.”
Sixty-two: “The Struggle for Power.”
Sixty-three: “The Political and Social Revolution.”
Sixty-four: “The CNT-FAI Enters the State.”
Sixty-five: “The Third Revolution–and Defeat.”
“Bibliographical Essay.”

2007. Social Ecology and Communalism. AK Press.
2006. “An Introduction to Social Ecology and Communalism.” Eirik Eiglad.
1992 (Revised 1996, 2001). “What is Social Ecology?” Communalism.
1989 (Revised 2001). “Radical Politics in an Era of Advanced Capitalism.” Green Perspectives.
1995. “The Role of Social Ecology in a Period of Reaction.” Green Perspectives.
2002 (Revised version of “The Communalism Moment”). “The Communalist Project.” Communalism.
2007. “After Murray Bookchin.” Eirik Eiglad.

2015. The Next Revolution: Popular Assemblies and the Promise of Direct Democracy. Verso.
2015. “Foreword by Ursela K. Le Guin.”
2015. “Introduction.” Debbie Bookchin and Blair Taylor.
2002. “The Communalist Project.”
1994. “The Ecological Crisis and the Need to Remake Society.”
1998. “A Politics for the Twenty-First Century.”
1995. “The Meaning of Confederalism.”
1991. “Libertarian Municipalism: A Politics of Direct Democracy.”
1997. “Cities: The Unfolding Reason in History.”
1994. “Nationalism and the National Question.”
2002. “Anarchism and Power in the Spanish Revolution.”
2002. “The Future of the Left.”

Unpublished. Free Cities: Communalism and the Left. 80 pages.
2008. Editor’s Preface: “Creating Free Cities.” Eirik Eiglad.
2005. Introduction.
1994. “The Ecological Crisis and the Need to Remake Society.”
1994. “Nationalism and the ‘National Question.”
1994. “Nationalism and the Great Revolutions.”
1997. “The Historical Importance of the City.”
~2001. “Anarchism as Individualism.”
2002. “Anarchism, Power, and Government.”
1998. “The Revolutionary Politics of Libertarian Municipalism.”
2002. “The Future of the Left.”
2000. “Toward a Communalist Approach.”

Works about Murray Bookchin

Biehl, Janet. 1998. Politics of Social Ecology, The: Libertarian Municipalism. Black Rose Books.
Author’s Note
1. Politics versus Statecraft
2. The Historical City
3. Municipal Democracy: Ancient and Medieval
4. Municipal Democracy: Colonial and Revolutionary
5. The State and Urbanization
6. The Municipality
7. Building a Movement
8. Elections
9. The Formation of Citizenship
10. Localism and Interdependence
11. Confederalism
12. A Municipalized Economy
13. Dual Power
14. A Rational Society
15. Today’s Agenda
Interview with Murray Bookchin
Appendix: 1989 Electoral Program of the Burlington Greens

Biehl, Janet, ed. 1999. Murray Bookchin Reader, The. Black Rose Books.
Anarchism and Ecology
The New Technology and the Human Scale
Ecological Technology
Social Ecology

Images of First Nature
Participatory Evolution
Society as Second Nature
On Biocentrism

Usufruct, Complementarity, and the Irreducible Minimum
Romanticizing Organic Society

The Emergence of Hierarchy
The Rise of the State
The Rise of Capitalism
The Market Society

Conditions of Freedom
The Problem of Want and Work
Cybernation and Automation
Technology for Life
The Fetishization of Needs

Marxism and Domination
Marxism and Leninism

The Two Traditions: Anarchism
Anarchy and Libertarian Utopias
Cultures of Revolt
Spanish Anarchism: The Collectives
Critique of Lifestyle Anarchism

The New Municipal Agenda

Objectively Grounded Ethics
A Philosophical Naturalism
Ecologizing the Dialectic

History, Civilization, and Progress

Biehl, Janet. 2015. Ecology or Catastrophe: The Life of Murray Bookchin. Oxford University Press.
1. Young Bolshevik
2. Trotskyist Labor Organizer
3. Rethinker
4. Eco-Decentralist
5. Eco-Anarchist
6. Counterculture Elder
7. Man of the Moment
8. Social Ecologist
9. Antinuclear Activist
10. Municipalist
11. Green Politico
12. Assembly Democrat
13. Historian

Clark, John, ed. 1990. Renewing the Earth: The Promise of Social Ecology: A Celebration of the Work of Murray Bookchin. Green Print.
Notes on the Contributors
Preface: John Clark, “A New Philosophy for the Green Movement”

John Clark, “What is Social Ecology?”
Morris Berman, “The Cybernetic Dream of the 21st Century”
Richard Merrill, “Reflections on Science, Technology, and the Biological Paradigm”
John Ely, “Anarchism and Animism”
Gary Snyder, “Coyote Man, Mr. President, and the Gunfighters (A Myth)”

Daniel Chodorkoff, “Social Ecology and Community Development”
Steven Schechter, “The Dialectic of Modernity: Again on the Limits of the City”
John Mohawk, “Distinguished Traditions”
Graham Baugh, “The Politics of Social Ecology”
Thomas Simon, “Beyond Technological Things”
Robert Nicholls, “A Literature of Alternatives”
Nancy Jack Todd and John Todd, “The Saga of the First Ocean Ark: An Adventure in Applied Social Ecology”
Karl Hess, “Rights and Reality”
Grace Paley, “In San Salvador (A Poem)”

Joel Kovel, “Human Nature, Freedom, and Spirit”
Chaia Heller, “Toward a Radical Eco-Feminism”
Patricia Jagentowicz Mills, “Nature and Freedom: Thoughts for the 1980s”
Stephen Duplantier, “The Social Ecology of Communications”
Jonathan Stevens, “Hegel’s Lament (A Song)”
Postscript: Murray Bookchin, “Ecologizing the Dialectic”

Light, Andrew, ed. 1998. Social Ecology after Bookchin. The Guilford Press.
Introduction: “Bookchin as/and Social Ecology,” Andrew Light

1. “Negating Bookchin,” Joel Kovel
2. “Divining Evolution and Respecting Evolution,” Robyn Eckersley
3. “Ethics and Directionality in Nature,” Glenn A. Albrecht
4. “Social Ecology and Reproductive Freedom: A Feminist Perspective,” Regina Cochrane

5. “Municipal Dreams: A Social Ecological Critique of Bookchin’s Politics,” John Clark
6. “Bookchin’s Ecocommunity as Ecotopia: A Constructive Critique,” Adolf G. Gundersen
7. “Social Ecology and the Problem of Technology,” David Watson
8. “‘Small’ is Neither Beautiful nor Ugly; It is Merely Small: Technology and the Future of Social Ecology,” Eric Stowe Higgs

9. “Ecology and Anthropology in the Work of Murray Bookchin: Problems of Theory and Evidence,” Alan P. Rudy
10. “Evolution and Revolution: The Ecological Anarchism of Kropotkin and Bookchin,” David Macauley
11. “Reconsidering Bookchin and Marcuse as Environmental Materialists: Toward an Evolving Social Ecology,” Andrew Light

Price, Andy. 2012. Recovering Bookchin: Social Ecology and the Crises of our Time. New Compass Press.
The Genesis of the Bookchin Caricature
The Ecology of Bookchin
Reassessing Bookchin’s Philosophy of Nature
On Hierarchy and Domination
Reassessing Bookchin’s Social History
From Anarchism to Communalism
Reassessing Bookchin’s Political Project

Watson, David. 1996. Beyond Bookchin: Preface for a Future Social Ecology. Autonomedia.
Author’s note and acknowledgements
Introduction by Steve Welzer
1. Social Ecology at an Impasse
2. Of Human Hubris and Cricket Dreams
3. The Wolf’s Point of View
4. Progress and Other Mirages
5. The Social Ecologist as Technocrat
6. Bookchin’s Civitas: From Here to Where?
7. On Dreams of Reason and Unbridgeable Chasms
8. Social Ecology and its Discontents
Abbreviations for Books by Murray Bookchin Cited in this Essay

White, Damian F. 2008. Bookchin: A Critical Appraisal. Pluto Press.
Bookchin’s Critics
Plan of the Work
1. Environments, Cities and Post-Scarcity Worlds

2. Hierarchy, Domination, Nature: Bookchin’s Historical Social Theory
3. Social Ecology as Modern Social Theory
4. Capitalism and Ecology

5. Ethics and the Normative Grounds of Critique
6. Urbanization, Cities, Utopia
7. Citizens, Politics, Democracy


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